Used in a variety of conditions to reduce pain and inflammation, promote tissue healing, stimulate or promote nerve and or muscle function, or muscular re-education. Electrical therapies are well researched, not painful, and are a foundation of some physical therapy treatment programs. Commonly used electrotherapies are interferential current, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, biphasic stimulation, and Russian muscle stimulation, all of which as characterized by different patterns and intensities of current.